The citizens of Lawrence were also aided by the abolitionist John Brown and his sons.

However, the Missourians never attacked, and the Lawrencians and the Missourians were encouraged by the governor to sign a peace treaty.

Such an agreement was finally made in December 1855, and eventually the Missouri army reluctantly left the area.

Sheriff Jones and other bands of Southern sympathizers continued to harass the Free Staters in the area, and eventually, pro-slavery forces singled out the Kansas Free State, the Herald of Freedom, and the Free State Hotel (the latter of which was owned and operated by the New England Emigrant Aid Company) as "nuisances" that needed to be dealt with.

The Oregon Trail followed the Kansas River through what would become Lawrence, and Hogback Ridge (the hill that would come to be known as Mount Oread) was used as a landmark and an outlook by those on the trail.

The origins of Lawrence also have their roots in the issue of slavery that plagued the United States in the 1800s.

The two argued that the actual residents of territories should be able to decide by voting whether or not slavery would be allowed in a newly created territory.

Douglas applied popular sovereignty to Kansas in the Kansas Nebraska Act which passed Congress in 1854.The most systematic and extensive movement [to colonize Kansas], however, was made in New England. Branscomb, of Holyoke, to explore the territory and select a site for a colony ... Robinson [had journey to Kansas, during which] his party climbed the hill along this spur, and looked off over what was afterwards the site of Lawrence."The New England Emigrant Aid Company," which had been chartered by the legislature of Massachusetts in April, was then called "The Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Society." But afterwards a new charter was obtained for "The New England Emigrant Aid Company." The men engaged in it, Eli Thayer, Amos A. They marked the beauty of the spot and the magnificence of the view.Eventually, it was agreed to call the town "Lawrence City" in honor or Amos Adams Lawrence, an abolitionist who, according to Cordley, was "one of the first men of means" to fund the Emigrant Aid Company.Two years later, in 1857, the Quincy School was started in the Emigrant Aid office before moving to the basement of the Unitarian Church in April. Shortly after Lawrence’s founding, two newspapers were started in the town: The Kansas Pioneer and the Herald of Freedom. A third paper, the Kansas Free State, was also created and began printing in early January 1855.The Plymouth Congregational Church was started in September 1854 by Reverend S. The establishment of these papers angered a number of pro-slavery people who lived in the region (as well as those living in Western Missouri).